Impact of Media on Children

The media when it first made an impact on the world, was a tool used for two major causes – advertising and broadcasting news. Entertainment slowly followed in pursuit, because entrepreneurs saw it as a way to pull in the masses using the same technique media had when it came to news and advertising. There was a time when the radio was solely one’s source of fun and amusement, with talk shows and music making it first out into the world as the primary go-to medium. People depended on it not just for news, but to while away time doing something they loved – tuning in to music.
The business of using the media to expel information, is not exactly a clean-cut scenario. Everyday running news on channels, isn’t all that it is hyped up to be with a lot of it held back from the public for fear of a reaction that they think they’ve foreseen. At the end of the day, people have to be able to handle the truth, but the media has a way of masking this to make it less impactful on them.

Children are glued to their television sets day in and day out, watching mindless programs that aren’t really helping them multiply gray matter, but rather depleting it. Parents and adults should encourage kids to watch educational matter, things that will help them build upon their knowledge about what is going on in the world, about history that has packed itself into our pasts that is worth looking back on and remembering. In this section we explore in detail the impact of media on children, and how this century more than any other, has made quite an impression on them.

Media Impact on Children
When advertisers sit around their round

Best Career Options in Mass Communication

Best career options in mass communication
As the world is in a constant revolution to bring its people closer and reach a wider populace, it has opened myriad job opportunities. The constant need to collect information and spread it across to hungry recipients has created several new opportunities in the field of mass communication. This field covers a large area of work, which is primarily associated with dispensing information through modes of communication.

Interestingly, mass communication offers jobs in the government as well as private and public sectors. For making a career in mass communication, one cannot just stumble upon it. It takes years of hard work, dedication, and commitment to get yourself a substantial job. This field is driven by work culture which is extremely deadline-oriented. Hence, it demands individuals who are ready to work through the toughest of pressures with a cool and composed demeanor. So, if you think you have it in you to deal with the cutthroat competition and scale heights of success, welcome to the offer that the world of mass communication is about to make to you.


✦ Print

Print journalism is the classic form of a career option in mass communication. To this day, it remains the most preferred career option for its enriching experience. Working with newspapers, magazines, periodicals, news service agencies, news websites, and tabloids are some of the options one can pursue in this field to build careers. The typical nature of work is working as a reporter, collecting news, and knowing what would make great news items. The other posts one can work for, with considerable experience, are editor, sub-editor, photographer, freelancer, columnist, correspondents, proofreaders, and news analysts.

Editor: The editor of a newspaper or magazine is responsible for editing articles, writing original articles, laying out the newspaper

Negative Influences of Media

You want to imitate an action sequence just because your favorite action hero looked ‘cool’ doing it. You want to wear the LBD just because you are a fan of Coco Chanel. You want to wear the shade of nail polish Lady Gaga wears for that frantic gaga look. You want to sport your favorite actors’ hairstyles and you want to walk like those ramp models do. You want to do everything that people from the glamor world do, you want to be like your favorite celebrity. Just like them, even you want to be in the news. Any publicity is good publicity, you begin to feel.
Your role models are people that the media exposes you to. You want to be someone, but not yourself! And now you say media does not influence you! Oh come on, it surely does! Mass media does affect the way in which masses think and act. It influences their behavior both positively and negatively. The positive effects are surely celebrated by one and all. But the negative effects are not conducive to a healthy society. Here, we will try to understand how media influences us negatively.
Media’s Negative Influence
Blind Imitation
When you try to imitate your role models from the glamor industry, do you give a thought to whether you are doing right or wrong? It is often seen that young girls and boys imitate celebrities blindly. The impact of media is such that the wrong, the controversial, and the bad is more talked about. Sometimes, little things are blown out of proportion thus changing the way they are perceived by the audience. Media highlights controversies and scandals in the lives of celebrities. The masses fall for this being-in-the-news and end up imitating celebrities without much thought. Those at a vulnerable age, especially children and

Positive Effects of the Media

That’s what media is capable of. It can influence society both positively and negatively. While it can lead to blind imitation, it can also serve as a source of inspiration. Overexposure to media can cause information overload, but its right use leads to a global exchange of information. Wrong choices may have a negative impact on society, especially on children and teenagers. However, if used wisely, media proves to be a boon. It gives us a platform to voice our opinions on social and political issues. Owing to its reach and ease of access, it increases general awareness. It is the best source of information, entertainment, and inspiration. It provides us with effective means of communication, making the world a smaller place. Advanced technology has only multiplied its effects. In this Buzzle article, we talk about how media affects us positively.
Positive Effects
Increased Awareness
Exposure to the different forms of media leads to an increased awareness about what’s happening around the world. Newspapers, web portals, and modern-day mobile apps that serve us news feeds, lead to a speedy spread of information. The latest in every field, be it entertainment, sports, or any other, news about major events across the globe, and information about what’s new, what’s trending, what’s in, and what’s out, reaches us within minutes, thanks to media. It makes us aware of the changing social or political scenario in not just our country, but the entire world. The changing economy, speculations about a rise or fall in the prices of goods, predictions about the growth or decline in jobs, and statistical studies in various other fields can help us plan for the future. An expected dip or rise in temperature, snow or rainfall, and harsh weather conditions are reported through weather forecasts in the news media. In case of

Pros and Cons of Media Consolidation

What is it about media consolidation that sparks such enormous debates everywhere? Why is it that, when media mogul Rupert Murdoch expressed his interest in buying the Los Angeles Times and the Chicago Tribune, it sparked such a controversy? Do we live in an age where media oligopoly runs rampant without any check? Does “freedom of press” still exist, or is the voice of the press muffled by the buyouts by large media companies?
What is Media Consolidation?
Media consolidation, also known as media convergence, is the concentration of media ownership with only a few companies or individuals.Once a country which had fifty major media companies in 1983, America now, has only nine important multinational media conglomerates, some of which include Walt Disney, Time Warner, Comcast, News Corp., CBS and Viacom.

There is an explosion of media consolidation since Congress passed the Telecommunications Act of 1996, thus FCC to review its media ownership rules every two years. Although this was done to encourage fairness and accuracy, instead it led to increasing buyouts.

As if this were not enough, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) seems to be pushing for more consolidation. In its latest proposal, the FCC proposes to allow a large corporation in the top 20 media markets to own a major newspaper, two television stations, up to eight radio stations and provide Internet service. This proposal is strikingly similar to the proposal by FCC in 2009, which both the Congress and the courts overturned. But, somehow, FCC as well as global media houses seem to be pushing for this rampant media consolidation.

This oligopolistic or monopolistic control in the market has raised many important questions, primary among which is whether these large media houses would be able to serve public interest adequately. This Buzzle article presents some pros and cons of media consolidation that

The Mean World Syndrome Theory Explained with Examples

To understand what the mean world syndrome is and how it gets jibed with our perception of the world we live in, we first need to discuss cultivation theory. Cultivation theory was put forth by Professor George Gerbner, dean of the Annenberg School of Communications at the University of Pennsylvania. Gerbner explains television as the originator of the cultivation theory. All of his assumptions are based on people’s perceptions and ideas that are developed as a result of television viewing.
Understanding the Parent Concept of Mean World Syndrome
You ask an adult if he believes in the existence of fairies, ogres, evil witches, etc., and he will be quick to repudiate them as fairy tale concepts, even when as a kid, he thought them as real or living. Our belief or attitude is largely influenced by story telling, and this is possibly why we all have, in some point of time in our lives, believed in the existence of fairy tale characters. This is exactly what happens with television.

Television is a significant source of amusement in our lives, and the media messages that we allow ourselves to be exposed to do not necessarily paint the world in a positive light. Murder, violence, rape, torture, etc., are portrayed as everyday happenings on the television. Likewise, television also normalizes notions concerning minorities, gender roles, stereotypes, etc.

Negative Norms at Work
These portrayals form our norms, which act as our guide to the society or, at large, the world we live in. These norms that are established as a result of heavy television viewing, thus cultivate attitudes in the viewers, which are in accord with the ones presented on television, thereby affecting our perception about the everyday world.
Heavy viewers (people who spend more time watching television) are prone to think of the world as a

Pros and Cons of Censorship

Censorship is the control of the influx of information and ideas in a society. Both democratic and non-democratic countries use it. With the explosion of communication technology, it has become all-pervasive. There is a dispute as to whether censorship is good or bad. It is applicable to programs on television, plays, movies, printed books, print magazines, video games and everything on the Internet.
Examples of Censorship
One of the very first incidents of censorship in movies took place in Hollywood in the year 1934, when a nude scene was snipped off from the film ‘Tarzan and His Mate’, as it violated the moral code back then. Even today films follow the modern MPAA (Motion Picture Association of America) code for censorship. During the 1950s, Elvis Presley appeared in one of the famous TV programs only to be shot by the camera till his torso; as his world-famous pelvic movements were deemed vulgar. Again during the 1950s, the Scientific American magazine published an article on thermonuclear fusion which was censored by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. The printed copies of the magazine were found and burnt as it contained classified information. During both World War I and World War II strict military censorship was laid on the freedom of press. A similar kind of censorship was also laid in India during the State of Emergency period in the 1980s. With the introduction of television and Internet, many important developments have taken place in the field of censorship around the world. A number of countries like Syria, Australia, Cuba, UAE, Yemen, Pakistan and Burma have censored the Internet. China has imposed stringent censorship regulations. A military censor was also laid on the freedom of press and Internet in Egypt lately. To protest against Internet censorship through PIPA (PROTECT IP Act) and SOPA

Importance of Marketing Research

Toying with a new product idea, wanting to boost up your sales, or planning to launch a new product, the importance of marketing research has grown unprecedentedly, especially in the times of recession. In fact, Philip Kotler, the marketing guru, acknowledges that it is only by marketing research, planning, implementation and control that effective marketing management can be accomplished. Before we can highlight the benefits of this research in management, let us effectively look at the concept.

What is Marketing Research?

This research can be defined as the process of gathering recording and analyzing the data related to certain products and services. This need for market research is derived from the concept that only by understanding the needs and wants of the target audience and by effectively meeting them, you will be able to achieve the organizational goals and surpass the competition in the specific market. Thus, arises the need to collect data about the customers, competitors, and other forces in the marketplace. This data in turn is collected and analyzed to make relevant marketing decisions, be it in relation to setting up a business, developing a product, creating a brand or coming up with an advertising campaign.

There are two methods of marketing research, namely primary research or secondary market research. While primary research seeks to understand customer motivations, opinions, and needs through quantitative and qualitative field research, secondary market research uses already existing sources of information to gather the data.

The Importance of Marketing Research

To Make Marketing Decisions

This research helps the marketers to make a decision about the product or service. Sometimes a marketer might believe that the new product or service is useful for the customers. However, research may show that customers do not need a product or are meeting their needs with a certain

Market Research Methods

Market research refers to studying and analyzing the market scenario in connection with a product or service. It involves gathering and recording information regarding specific products and services. It is imperative for any business to keep it in tune with the competition. Such inquiries gives the managers an insight into target selection, potential customers, and identifying and planning for fulfilling customer needs.

Method 1
Survey is the most common research tool and if done properly, almost accurate marketing conclusions can be made. A questionnaire which is concise and to the point and covers the aspects which require to be analyzed will do the trick. Then analysis of a sample group representing your target market is all you need to do. To get better results, a larger sample is preferable. In surveys too there are types – you have one-on-one surveys. These are done typically where you can find a lot of people at one place, like a mall. In such a survey, you get an instant feedback.

Another type of survey is a telephone survey. Although costlier than the mail, it is cheaper than the one-on-one survey. But the glitch here is that these days with constant telemarketing, people are becoming increasingly averse to such calls. On the other hand, if you want to get responses from a large number of people, mail or online survey is an effective way. However, they generate the minimum amount of response. These are quantitative market research methods.

Method 2
With detailed personal interviews, one has credible conclusions than surveys. These interviews have open-ended questions and are normally recorded. Even if these might not be statistically reliable perhaps, they are excellent to gain interesting and valuable insights in customer attitudes. You can conclude many things about new products or services. These

Market Segmentation Theory

There are many theories associated with the yield curve and one such theory is market segmentation theory. It brings together potential buyers into segments with common needs, that will respond to a marketing action. This means that, certain investors are interested in particular types of investments like short-term debt securities. However, few investors are interested in only long-term bonds. Thus, it discusses each separate maturity as independent from others.

What is it?

It shows that there is no direct relationship between the prevailing interest rates in the market in both, the short-term and long-term markets. Both these plans have separate term periods, that cannot be replaced among each other. So the demand and supply of debt instruments with both the periods are calculated individually.

The theory finds that, the securities that are traded in short-term market may undergo a significant flux, and the rates that are applied to long-term investments remain static to some extent. It is sometimes also known as the segmented markets theory. It mostly agrees and supports the preferred habitat theory. According to the preferred habitat theory, the investors have a specific expectation, when one is required to invest in securities with different maturity lengths. When an investor trades on an opportunity, that matches their preferences and their assumed degree of risk, the expectations remain within the degree of reason. However, if he buys or sells securities that have a maturity beyond their preferences, it will affect their assumption of risks and needs, and will require a need for increased return to balance that risk.

Those who advocate this theory have pointed out that, the evaluation of the yield curves of short-term and long-term markets, shows that the rate of interest applied has little or no relationship with one another. In fact, the yield curve is based on the available supply

Benefits of Conducting a Focus Group

A focus group can be explained as sampling of a group of people from a larger population and interviewing them for market research or political analysis. It is usually termed as a part of qualitative analysis for a social research in which the opinions, beliefs, perceptions, attitudes, and expectations of a group of people towards a particular person, place, product, etc., are noted down to understand their behavioral pattern and their psyche. The group of people or the participants in a focus group are chosen by the researchers.

Focus groups are formed because this method is a more efficient source of understanding what people think, feel, believe, and expect. For conducting a focus group, a bunch of people are called or invited and they are asked to discuss on a given topic. These sessions go on for about 2-3 hours; simultaneously a skilled moderator is making a note of reactions, ideas and opinions of all the participants. The members of the focus group can be selected randomly or based on some commonality between them.

Focus group’s opinions and reactions are very important to the industries like advertising, marketing and media. These sectors amend their product, product designs, policies and their strategy based on the focus group’s reaction. This is because it often increases the scope of a product and its development.


– Direct Interaction: The researcher, in case of a focus group interaction, gets the opportunity to directly interact with the targeted participants. The researcher can observe their body language, expressions and opinions and can thoroughly study them. This makes the process of collection of data and processing it, very easy.
– Openness: A focus group allows its participants to communicate and interact freely as their opinions are valued and noted by the researchers. The frank opinion given by the focus group participants

Advantages and Disadvantages of Convenience Sampling

If you want to conduct a survey on a particular topic, you have to reach out to many people. You have to prepare a questionnaire and get people to answer it. Based on the response you get, you can draw conclusions. Thus, a survey can give you an idea about the views and opinions of the people. It can also give you the necessary facts and information about a particular issue, product, or event.

You can reach out to people in many ways. You can go to places like an office, college, or school where a lot of people can be available in one go. You can approach people in public places like a mall, park, etc. If you have the resources, you can connect to people via the print and electronic media like newspapers, magazines, television, and websites to name a few.

Convenience Sampling with Examples
Convenience sampling is a sampling technique in which you collect samples of data from people who are easily accessible to you.

Example 1: If you approach the higher authorities in an organization so that you can conduct a survey on its employees, you may not receive permission for doing so. However, they may allow you to approach whoever you can in their free time. You can stand near the cafeteria and get participants for your survey. This is called convenience sampling. In this case, you get a chance to collect data from people who are conveniently accessible to you.

Example 2: If you want to study about the physical and mental condition of women who suffer from PMS (premenstrual syndrome), you can approach the patients of a particular doctor or a hospital. There will be women who will voluntarily participate in your research. Thus, this becomes an example of convenience sampling as the subjects are conveniently accessible

A Brief Explanation about Convenience Sampling

The ‘Pepsi Challenge’ marketing campaign is an example of convenience sampling. It is held in public places like shopping malls, and people are asked to participate in it without discrimination of any sorts. Such campaigns help gain initial primary data regarding the product.
In statistical analysis, ‘sampling’ means collecting samples, i.e., data from a subset of a statistical population. The findings from such a survey are extrapolated to represent the characteristics and preferences of the entire population. A statistical population refers to that entire group of people, animals, plants, things, places, etc., about which we are interested to gain understandings and insights. Based on the method of collecting data, sampling is classified into probability and non-probability sampling. Convenience sampling is a non-probability sampling method.
Depending on the goal it strives to attain, a research is classified into quantitative or qualitative. Convenience sampling uses qualitative research. In qualitative research, we strive to understand why certain quantities are preferred or a particular decision is made. In this article, we look into the details of convenience sampling.
Convenience sampling is a type of sampling technique used in surveys in which samples of data are collected from those people who are readily available for study. It is also known as accidental, grab, or opportunity sampling.
Brief Explanation
When conducting a research on a certain topic, in convenience sampling, you ask questions to those people who are easily accessible to you, instead of conducting the study on a huge number and a variety of people. A convenience sample cannot be considered as a representation of data that is gathered exhaustively from all the possible sources. It is also not selected from sources that are carefully or scientifically chosen.
»If we want to conduct research on which is the favorite sport that teenagers of a particular city

How to Become a Marketing Coordinator

Any kind of business, whether it offers a product or a service, is selling something. In order for people to be aware of this product or service, it is important that a full-fledged marketing campaign be held. This marketing campaign not only makes people aware about this product in the market, it also promotes it in a manner that makes it the best and the most desirable option for everyone around. This is where the job of a marketing coordinator begins.

A marketing coordinator is a professional who coordinates various marketing activities, that include carrying out promotional campaigns for any business, by conducting thorough market research, determining a target audience, handling press, and even deciding on the types of promotional material that will be used for the campaign (advertisements, flyers, etc.) A marketing coordinator also studies current trends to make future predictions about the kind of products or services that should be provided to the consumer, or simply suggests improvements in existing products and services. It is definitely a stressful job because of the array of responsibilities the job of a marketing coordinator entails. Moreover, it can involve long hours of work under a deadline-driven environment. If you think you are ready to take up all this, here’s how you should go about pursuing this career option.

Educational Requirements to Become a Marketing Coordinator

Any job in marketing, including that of a marketing coordinator, is not solely dependent on an education. Yes, education does solidify a professional’s background, but it is the experience that truly develops a professional.

➝ A bachelor’s degree in marketing is the best option for any student aspiring to achieve a position in the field. However, a degree in sales, business administration, communication, psychology, statistics and the like is also good enough. All these

Salesman Job Description

A salesperson is expected to assess the requirements of the customer, suggest suitable products and alternative options, and make a good sales pitch, thus ensuring that both, the consumer and the proprietor, feel satisfied with the resultant outcome. The job description of a salesman/salesperson depends — to a great extent — on his/her line of work. The write-up discusses job details of Salespersons dealing in Insurance, Retail, Telecommunication, Door-to-door sales, and Four-wheeler sector.

Job Details Of …

Insurance Salesman

An insurance salesperson has the job of assessing the requirements of the client and suggesting suitable insurance products. For instance, a person may be interested in availing life insurance, but may find it difficult to pay the costly premium. In this case, the insurance salesperson should suggest term life insurance, rather than whole life insurance, provided the consumer is young and is in relatively good health. The insurance premium for term life insurance, is less than the premium required for availing permanent life insurance. However, a low premium comes at the cost of reduced coverage. A person, who has a mortgage on the house, may be advised to go for mortgage life insurance assuming that the family has limited resources and is interested in retaining the house at all costs. An insurance salesman should ensure that he/she markets a product based on the advantages that are likely to accrue to a consumer rather than the commission that would accrue as a result of marketing a costly product. This will ensure that the salesman eventually builds a good client base that will serve as a syndicate for growing remuneration in the days to come.

Retail Salesman

A retail salesperson has the job of assessing the needs of the consumer and providing the latter with a suitable product. For instance, a salesperson working at a clothing store is